Meth: WWII and Post War Usage and Distribution

Illicit industrial-scale methamphetamine and MDMA chemical factory (Cikande, Indonesia)

Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia (Otley, Iowa). Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer which is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, the state of Iowa gave out thousands of locks in order to prevent criminals from accessing the tanks.[109]

World War II

One of the earliest uses of methamphetamine was during World War II, when it was used by Axis and Allied forces.[86] The German and Finnish militaries dispensed it under the trademark name Pervitin. It was widely distributed across rank and division, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel, with many millions of tablets being distributed throughout the war.[87] From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell. It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler’s speculated Parkinson’s disease, or that his Parkinson-like symptoms that developed from 1940 onwards resulted from using methamphetamine.[88] In Japan, methamphetamine was sold under the registered trademark of Philopon (ヒロポン hiropon?) by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma for civilian and military use. As with the rest of the world at the time, the side effects of methamphetamine were not well studied, and regulation was not seen as necessary.

Post-war usage

After World War II, a large Japanese military stockpile of methamphetamine, known by its trademark Philopon, flooded the market.[89] The Japanese Ministry of Health banned it in 1951; since then, it has been increasingly produced by the Yakuza criminal organization.[90] On the streets, it is also known as S, Shabu, and Speed, in addition to its old trademarked name. In the 1950s, there was a rise in the legal prescription of methamphetamine to the American public. In the 1954 edition of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, indications for methamphetamine included "narcolepsy, postencephalitic parkinsonism, alcoholism, certain depressive states, and in the treatment of obesity."[91] The 1960s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine, initially in the 1960s mainly produced by motorcycle gangs, as well as beginning in the 1990s the production of methamphetamine created in users’ own homes for personal and recreational use which continues to this day.

Trademark Litigation

In 1948, the Philopon trademark came under a well-publicized lawsuit by Philips Corporation.[89] Philips under its Koninklijke division filed suit against Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma to cease using Philipon as the commercial name for methamphetamine claiming that they had the exclusive right to use the trademark as a portmanteau of Philips and Nippon, the Japanese name of the country. DSP’s attorneys challenged Philips’ standing to sue as a foreign (Dutch) corporation. The matter was ultimately settled out of court in 1952, with Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma agreeing to pay Philips a 5% royalty on worldwide sales of methamphetamines sold by DSP under the Philopon label. The Japanese Ministry of Health banned production less than a year later.[90]

Production and distribution

1 lb (454 g) of methamphetamine found on a passenger at LA International Airport (LAX)

Until the early 1990s, methamphetamine for the U.S. market was made mostly in labs run by drug traffickers in Mexico and California. Indiana state police found 1,260 labs in 2003, compared to just 6 in 1995, although this may be partly a result of increased police activity.[99] As of 2007, drug and lab seizure data suggests that approximately 80 percent of the methamphetamine used in the United States originates from larger laboratories operated by Mexican-based syndicates on both sides of the border and that approximately 20 percent comes from small toxic labs (STLs) in the United States.[100]

Mobile and motel-based methamphetamine labs have caught the attention of both the U.S. news media and the police. Such labs can cause explosions and fires and expose the public to hazardous chemicals. Those who manufacture methamphetamine are often harmed by toxic gases. Many police departments have specialized task forces with training to respond to cases of methamphetamine production. The National Drug Threat Assessment 2006, produced by the Department of Justice, found "decreased domestic methamphetamine production in both small and large-scale laboratories", but also that "decreases in domestic methamphetamine production have been offset by increased production in Mexico." The report concluded that "methamphetamine availability is not likely to decline in the near term."[101]

In July 2007, Mexican officials at the port of Lázaro Cárdenas seized a ship carrying 19 tons of pseudoephedrine, a raw material needed for methamphetamine.[102] The shipment originated in Hong Kong and passed through the United States at the port of Long Beach prior to its arrival in Mexico.

In the United States, illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms with prices varying widely over time.[103] Most commonly, it is found as a colorless crystalline solid. Impurities may result in a brownish or tan color. Colorful flavored pills containing methamphetamine and caffeine are known as yaa baa (Thai for "crazy medicine").

An impure form of methamphetamine is sold as a crumbly brown or off-white rock, commonly referred to as "peanut butter crank".[104] It may be diluted or cut with non-psychoactive substances like inositol, isopropylbenzylamine or dimethylsulfone. Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances, such as caffeine or cathine, into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants. It may also be flavored with high-sugar candies, drinks, or drink mixes to mask the bitter taste of the drug. Coloring may be added to the meth, as is the case with "Strawberry Quick".[105][106]

North Korea

North Korea might also be facing one of the world’s worst meth epidemics. Although the privacy of the North means that any report may be only approximate, there have been an increasing number of signs that meth is very widespread throughout the country, used both recreationally and as medicine.[107]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methamphetamine

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